Helmut Todo Tua Simamora dan dr. Olga Y.V Hutapea
Berikut merupakan kutipan ilmiah kedokteran tentang virus ebola yang sangat bermanfaat diketahui sehingga disusun dan digunakan sebagai referensi pribadi.
A test for Ebola has been carried out on a female passenger who died after arriving in the UK from The Gambia.
The Department for Health said the test on the elderly woman, who landed at Gatwick Airport, came back negative on Sunday afternoon.
Some 728 people have died of Ebola in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone this year, in the worst-ever outbreak of the disease.
Public Health England says the risk to the UK remains very low.
The Ebola virus spreads through human contact with a sufferer's bodily fluids.
Initial flu-like symptoms can lead to external haemorrhaging from areas like eyes and gums, and internal bleeding which can lead to organ failure. The current mortality rate is about 55%.'No public health risk'
The woman, believed to be in her early 70s, had been a passenger on a Gambia Bird flight that arrived at Gatwick on Saturday morning.
She collapsed at the airport and was later pronounced dead in hospital.
A Department of Health spokeswoman said the passenger's symptoms had not suggested she was an Ebola victim but the test was carried out because she had travelled from West Africa.
Dr Brian McCloskey, director of global public health at Public Health England (PHE), said: "There was no health risk to other passengers or crew, as the passenger did not have symptoms during the flight.
"It was considered very unlikely to be a case of Ebola but testing was done as a precaution, and was negative.
"The correct procedures were followed to confirm there was no reason to quarantine the airplane, the passengers or staff. PHE can confirm there was no public health risk around the sad death of this individual."
Ebola virus disease (EVD)
- Symptoms include high fever, bleeding and central nervous system damage
- Fatality rate can reach 90%
- Incubation period is two to 21 days
- There is no vaccine or cure
- Supportive care such as rehydrating patients who have diarrhoea and vomiting can help recovery
- Fruit bats are considered to be virus' natural host
A Gatwick spokeswoman said the aircraft, as well as some airline and airport staff, were isolated "as a precaution" but that the plane was later cleared for its return journey.
Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond has said the government is taking the outbreak, and the threat to the UK, "very seriously".
Ministers have discussed what precautionary measures could be taken if any UK nationals in West Africa become infected with Ebola.
Public Health England has advised UK medical staff to watch out for unexplained illnesses in patients who have visited West Africa.
It said no cases of imported Ebola have ever been reported in the UK.
The US is to send at least 50 public health experts to the region to help fight the disease. They are expected to arrive in the next month.
Meanwhile, American Ebola patient Dr Kent Brantly is improving in hospital after returning to the US from Liberia. Another infected US citizen, aid worker Nancy Writebol, is expected to arrive in the US soon.
A medical official with the U.N. Mission in Liberia who tested positive for Ebola arrived in the German city of Leipzig on Thursday to be treated at a local clinic with specialist facilities, authorities said.
The unidentified medic infected in Liberia is the second member of the U.N. mission, known as UNMIL, to contract the virus. The first died on Sept. 25. He is the third Ebola patient to arrive in Germany for treatment.
"The man will be treated on an isolation ward... with strict security measures," said Dr Iris Minde, head of Leipzig's St Georg clinic in a statement. "There is no danger of infection for other patients, relatives, visitors or the public."
The hospital stressed its doctors and carers were fully prepared and have regular training on how to work in an isolation ward with highly infectious patients. A Spanish nurse became the first person to contract Ebola outside of Africa, while caring for a priest who died of the disease.
The world's worst outbreak of Ebola on record has killed 3,879 people by Oct. 5, most of them in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone, according to the latest figures from the World Health Organisation (WHO).
A WHO employee who arrived in Germany from Sierra Leone for treatment last month was released last weekend after successful treatment at a clinic in Hamburg. Another patient is being treated in Frankfurt. (Reporting by Reuters television; Writing by Alexandra Hudson; Editing by Tom Heneghan)
The current Ebola outbreak sweeping through West Africa likely began at the funeral of a healer in Sierra Leone.
“The funeral was for an herbalist or traditional medicine practitioner in Koindu, a town in Sierra Leone,” says Robert Garry, professor of microbiology and immunology at Tulane University.
“The herbalist had treated several patients from neighboring Guinea, one or more of whom were apparently infected with Ebola virus.”
Scientists were able to sequence 99 Ebola virus genomes using blood samples from 78 patients, painting a record “real-time” snapshot of how the virus rapidly mutated as the outbreak spread.
The analysis, published in the journal Science, shows that the West African Ebola strain was distantly related to a strain that has been circulating in central Africa for decades, but likely migrated to the region in 2004.
Scientists found 300 mutations that differentiate the viral genomes involved in this outbreak from previous outbreaks.
“This is first study to document deep viral genomics during a human outbreak of a hemorrhagic fever like Ebola,” Garry says. “We get a close look at not only how the virus is evolving as it passes from one person to the next, but also how the virus changes as it replicates within a person.”
The results can help researchers as they work to develop antibody-based treatments using the genetic profile of the virus. They also help improve the accuracy of diagnostic tests.
“The diagnostics used in the field are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based,” Garry says. “PCR depends on finding precise matches between a synthetic primer and the viral genome. If the virus genome mutates, the PCR assay may not work or not work as well.”
Coauthors of the study are from Harvard University, the Broad Institute of MIT, and researchers in Sierra Leone.
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