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Kamis, 08 Oktober 2015

TABEL KOMPOSISI VOLUME ATMOSFER (UDARA) DALAM KONDISI KEMARAU



Composition of dry atmosphere, by volume[▽note 1]
Gas (and others) Volume by various[15][▽note 2] Volume by CIPM-2007[16] Volume by ASHRAE[17]
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 ppmv[▽note 3] percentile  ppmv percentile  ppmv percentile
Nitrogen (N2) 780,800 (78.080%) 780,848 (78.0848%) 780,818 (78.0818%)
Oxygen (O2) 209,500 (20.950%) 209,390 (20.9390%) 209,435 (20.9435%)
Argon (Ar) 9,340 (0.9340%) 9,332 (0.9332%) 9,332 (0.9332%)
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 397.8 (0.03978%) 400 (0.0400%) 385 (0.0385%)
Neon (Ne) 18.18 (0.001818%) 18.2 (0.00182%) 18.2 (0.00182%)
Helium (He) 5.24 (0.000524%) 5.2 (0.00052%) 5.2 (0.00052%)
Methane (CH4) 1.81 (0.000181%) 1.5 (0.00015%) 1.5 (0.00015%)
Krypton (Kr) 1.14 (0.000114%) 1.1 (0.00011%) 1.1 (0.00011%)
Hydrogen (H2) 0.55 (0.000055%) 0.5 (0.00005%) 0.5 (0.00005%)
Nitrous oxide (N2O) 0.325 (0.0000325%) 0.3 (0.00003%) 0.3 (0.00003%)
Carbon monoxide (CO) 0.1 (0.00001% ) 0.2 (0.00002%) 0.2 (0.00002%)
Xenon (Xe) 0.09 (0.000009%) 0.1 (0.00001%) 0.1 (0.00001%)
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) 0.02 (0.000002%) - - - -
Iodine (I2) 0.01 (0.000001%) - - - -
Ammonia (NH3) trace trace - - - -
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) trace trace - - - -
Ozone (O3) 0.02 to 0.07 [▽note 4] (2 to 7×10−6%) [▽note 4] - - - -
Trace to 30 ppm [▽note 6] (----) - - - - 2.9 (0.00029%)
Dry air total (air) 1,000,065.265 (100.0065265%) 999,997.100 (99.9997100%) 1,000,000.000 (100.0000000%)
Not included in above dry atmosphere:
Water vapor (H2O) ~0.25% by mass over full atmosphere, locally 0.001%–5% by volume.[21]
  1. ▽Concentration pertains to the troposphere
  2. ▽The NASA total value do not add up to exactly 100% due to roundoff and uncertainty. To normalize, N2 should be reduced by about 51.46 ppmv and O2 by about 13.805 ppmv.
  3. ▽ppmv: parts per million by volume (note: volume fraction is equal to mole fraction for ideal gas only, see volume (thermodynamics))
  4. ▽values disregarded for the calculation of total dry air
  5. ▽(O3) concentration up to 0.07 ppmv (7×10−6%) in summer and up to 0.02 ppmv (2×10−6%) in winter
  6. ▽volumetric composition value adjustment factor (sum of all trace gases, below the (CO2), and adjusts for 30 ppmv)


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