Classic Clock

Senin, 11 November 2013

BELAJAR TENTANG SKALA INTENSITAS ANGIN TOPAN TROPIS (TROPICAL CYCLONE INTENSITY SCALE)


There are six main requirements for tropical cyclogenesis: sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, highhumidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriolis force to develop a low pressure center, a pre-existing low level focus or disturbance, and low vertical wind shear. While these conditions are necessary for tropical cyclone formation, they do not guarantee that a tropical cyclone will form. Normally, an ocean temperature of 26.5 °C (79.7 °F) spanning through a depth of at least 50 metres (160 ft) is considered the minimum to maintain the special mesocyclone that is the tropical cyclone.[citation needed]These warm waters are needed to maintain the warm core that fuels tropical systems. A minimum distance of 500 km (300 mi) from the equator is normally needed for tropical cyclogenesis.[11]
Whether it be a depression in the intertropical covergence zone (ITCZ) or monsoon trough, a broad surface front, or an outflow boundary, a low level feature with sufficient vorticityand convergence is required to begin tropical cyclogenesis. About 85 to 90 percent of Pacific typhoons form within the monsoon trough.[12] Even with perfect upper level conditions and the required atmospheric instability, the lack of a surface focus will prevent the development of organized convection and a surface low. Vertical wind shear of less than 10 m/s (20 kn, 33 ft/s) between the ocean surface and the tropopause is required for tropical cyclone development.[11] Typically with Pacific typhoons, there are two outflow jets: one to the north ahead of an upper trough in the Westerlies, and a second towards the equator.[12]
In general, westerly wind increases associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation lead to increased tropical cyclogenesis in all tropical cyclone basins. As the oscillation propagates from west to east, it leads to an eastward march in tropical cyclogenesis with time during that hemisphere's summer season.[13] On average, twice per year twin tropical cyclones will form in the western Pacific ocean, near the 5th parallel north and the 5th parallel south, along the same meridian, or line of longitude.[14] There is an inverse relationship between tropical cyclone activity in the western Pacific basin and the north Atlantic basin, however. When one basin is active, the other is normally quiet, and vice versa. The main reason for this appears to be the phase of the Madden-Julian oscillation, or MJO, which is normally in opposite modes between the two basins at any given time.[15

Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale
CategorySustained winds
Typhoon≥64 kt
≥118 km/h
Severe
Tropical Storm
48–63 kt
89–117 km/h
Tropical Storm34–47 kt
62–88 km/h
Tropical
Depression
≤33 kt
≤61 km/h



Sumber : 

  1. ^ Chris Landsea (2010-06-01). "Subject: F1) What regions around the globe have tropical cyclones and who is responsible for forecasting there?"National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
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    ^ Anatoly Liberman (2009). Word Origins And How We Know Them: Etymology for Everyone. Oxford University Press. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-0-19-538707-0. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
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    ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Typhoon"American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2011-03-24.
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    a b c d Typhoon Committee (2008). "Typhoon Committee Operational Manual"(PDF). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
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    a b c d "Classifications of Tropical cyclones"Hong Kong Observatory. 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-04-27.
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    ^ Roger Graham Barry and Richard J. Chorley (2003). Atmosphere, weather, and climate. Psychology Press. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-415-27170-7. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
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    ^ Colleen A. Sexton (2006). Philippines in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 16.ISBN 978-0-8225-2677-3. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
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    ^ Edward B. Rodgers, Robert F. Adler, and Harold F. Pierce (October 2000)."Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to the North Pacific Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites"Journal of Applied Meteorology (American Meteorological Society39 (10): 1662. Bibcode:2000JApMe..39.1658Rdoi:10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1658:COTCTT>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
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    ^ David J. Nemeth (1987). The architecture of ideology: neo-Confucian imprinting on Cheju Island, Korea. University of California Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-520-09713-1. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
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    ^ Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command (2011). "Products and Service Notice"United States Navy. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
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    ^ Hong Kong Observatory (September 2010). "Tropical Cyclones in 2009". pp. 18–19. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
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    ^ Kam-Biu Liu, Caiming Shen, and Kin-Sheun Louie (2001). "A 1,000-Year History of Typhoon Landfalls in Guangdong, Southern China, Reconstructed from Chinese Historical Documentary Records". Annals of the Association of American Geographers91 (3): 453–464. doi:10.1111/0004-5608.00253ISSN 0004-5608.
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    ^ Samenow, Jason; McNoldy Brian (2013-11-08). "Among Strongest Storms Ever".Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
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    ^ George M. Dunnavan, John W. Diercks (1980). "An Analysis of Super Typhoon Tip (October 1979)"Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 108(11): 1915–1923. Bibcode:1980MWRv..108.1915Ddoi:10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<1915:AAOSTT>2.0.CO;2ISSN 1520-0493. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
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    ^ Anderson-Berry, Linda J.; Weyman James C. (2008-02-26). "Fifth International Workshop on Tropycal Cyclones: Topic 5.1: Societal Impacts of Tropical Cyclones.".World Meteorological Organization. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
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    ^ Arizona State University (2009-08-12). "Taiwan Rainfall Record Investigation". Retrieved 2011-03-06.
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    ^ "Record rains in south". The China Post. 2009-08-09. Retrieved 2009-08-09.

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