Kamis, 22 Agustus 2013


Simamora, Helmut Todo Tua
Environment, Research and Development Agency
Samosir Regency Government of North Sumatera Province

Berikut merupakan kutipan ilmiah dari media online, sesuai bahasa Inggris, yang disusun kembali oleh Penulis dan digunakan sebagai referensi di dalam mendukung kegiatan kerja di kantor.


Waste is created when a product loses its utility. In nature, there is no waste as dead matter is broken down by microbes in the soil to become food for the next cycle of production. However, most technology employed today generates waste in terms of creation of products that have limited use and mostly neither recyclable nor biodegradable. These result in large landfills and concomitant emissions of greenhouse gases and chemicals that are health hazards to people exposed to them. In addition, waste leads to ground water pollution as well as that of the oceans, which in turn poses hazards not only to marine life but also to the food chain.
For the hospitality industry, the waste created by daily operations is an ongoing challenge. All departments contribute to generating waste, though on a daily basis some like Food & Beverages (F&B) generate more on account of the nature of their operation. In addition to incurring the costs of waste disposal, valuable space is usually taken by waste that takes long to dispose.
Waste Management is a comprehensive waste prevention, recycling and disposal programme. It involves local need, conditions and stakeholders and then selecting and combining the most appropriate activities. The most preferred method for managing waste is  reducing at source through reduction and reuse, which also reduces costs. The objective is to reduce the waste to landfill as much as possible.
For hotels, a good waste management strategy not only results in greater operational efficiencies but also helps keeping the property cleaner and the finances healthier as we encourage properties to earn from waste. Numerous hotels, big and small, are implementing waste reduction programmes with great success. At least 22 of the Fairmont hotels around the world get their cooking oil converted into  forms of bio-fuel, which are then used to power the properties' shuttle buses and on-property equipment. Taj Hotels' Jai Mahal Palace in Jaipur, Rajasthan gets its kitchen and garden waste made into feed for its biogas plants. ECOTEL hotels like Rodas and Meluha sell their waste oil to a vendor who makes soap from it and divert more than 90 percent of their waste from landfills.
As the industry is able to better assess its environmental impact, hotels are likely to come up with more creative solutions for waste reduction as they engage in partnerships that benefit all stakeholders. We also expect to see hotels increasingly lean toward suppliers/vendors who provide environmentally friendly materials and equipment with reduced packaging, and to whom the hotels can hand back dry packaging for recycling.
The Waste Management Globe aims to reduce the waste to landfill and thereby the Solid Waste Diversion Rate by an efficient Waste Management Strategy. This will also enable reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The strategy ensures greater operational efficiency throughout the hierarchy of the hotel. ECOTEL’s Waste Management effort is centered upon the 4Rs of reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover:
 Identify waste generating areas in different departments and the composition of the waste stream in each.
Reduce waste generation through source reduction, which includes strategies like reducing consumption and packaging, substituting by products that are designed to last longer, reusing products and materials recovered from the waste stream in their current forms.
Recycle, compost or recover material for use as direct or indirect input to new products that can be utilised in the hotel or the community.
ECOTEL will set up policies and procedures for handling waste and recoverable material including separation, collection, composting, incineration and land filling and establish training programs as part of the overall ECOTEL training schedule. ECOTEL will monitor waste managements over time and modify the system to optimise it for the property in question

Any waste management strategy will take into account the hierarchy of waste management with a number of things that can be done before recycling.
- Avoid buying disposable products and unnecessary packaging.
- Avoid buying products with excessive packaging
- Buy more durable, long-lasting products
- Buy recycled goods.
- Reuse paper printed on one side only 
- Buy container refills
- Use rechargeable batteries
- Reuse grey water (e.g. water from water butt for washing paths outside and watering plants.
Recycle and Compost
- Recycle glass, plastic, cardboard, papers, metal, aluminium and textiles
- Compost grass cuttings and garden waste.

Monitoring: We recommend regular monitoring of waste to ensure waste minimisation strategies are resulting in reduced amounts of waste disposal each month.
Duty of Care Regulations:  All waste removed from the premises is covered by the Duty of Care regulations. These regulations specify that all commercial waste (either for disposal or recycling) must be removed by registered waste carriers; and transfer notes should be completed and retained on file. Any waste contractors used, including the council, should provide the company with a transfer note on a yearly basis. Transfer notes must be retained on file for a minimum of two years.
Hazardous waste: Batteries, engine oil, cooking oil, solvents, paints, old fluorescent tubes and other hazardous wastes must be disposed of with a Special Waste Contractor licensed to take away hazardous waste. One way to reduce the use of solvent based paints is to use natural paints. The benefit of natural paints is also to reduce off-gassing and improve indoor air quality. See www.villanatura.co.uk/Biofa or http://www.ecomerchant.co.uk

Recycling: Recycling is good for the environment because it significantly lowers the amount of waste going to landfill, and can reduce waste costs if fewer collections are needed for general waste. We recommend that Blackpool companies contact Emprise (http://www.emprise.org.uk Tel. 01253 478030) in order to start kerbside recycling of glass, metal tins and aluminium cans. Recycling with Emprise will save money on waste costs as less collections for general waste will be needed.
Paper can be recycled in Blackpool with Upbeat 01253 478024 http://www.upbeat-recycling.org.uk  in the green bags.
In addition to recycling, the use of paper in offices can be reduced by printing paper double sided, and by printing internal documents on paper that has already been printed on one side.

Separate Bins: In order to recycle aluminium cans, glass bottles and metal tins, separate bins could be made available in the kitchen and bar so that these items can be easily recycled.
Compact Metal Tins: In order to compact tins and minimise the number of recycling bin uplifts, the company could consider purchasing a can crusher. A typical can crusher can be wall-mounted and costs approximately £15. Seehttp://www.ultimateanimals.co.uk/acatalog/cancrusher_can_crusher_.html
Soap Dispensers: Refillable liquid soap dispensers can be used in guest rooms instead of soap bars. This minimises waste by not needing to throw away used soap bars after every guest has checked out.

Getting Started
Management should adopt an environmental policy to reflect how the company sees itself in relation to the environment, neighbors, and the people it employs and serves. Chains with multiple locations may want to encourage each hotel to evaluate and establish its own program.
For your program to be successful, management should appropriate the necessary staff and funds to run your environmental program, and offer training to staff.
Promote your program and successes to guests and conference attendees through your advertising.
Conduct a waste evaluation to identify waste prevention ideas and estimate the amount of recyclable materials generated at your hotel. Chances are, you can use many of the following ideas, which are being successfully used by many hotels and motels, and can help you reduce waste and save money!
Waste Prevention
Waste prevention means not creating waste in the first place. Waste that is not created does not have to be disposed, which saves money.

Minimize waste by replacing disposable room amenities with refillable or reusable substitutes.
Establish purchasing guidelines to encourage the use of durable, repairable equipment, and high-quality, reusable products such as linen and tableware.
Donate soap and toiletries to local shelters.
Distribute restaurant condiments from behind the counter, rather than in single-service packets.
Donate unserved food to local food banks. California's "Good Samaritan" law protects the donor from liability if the food is properly stored and handled. Produce scraps can be composted on site, or donated to local farmers for composting or animal feed.
Reuse old linens as aprons or towels, or donate them to local charities.
Donate old furniture and equipment to institutions or charity.
Purchase cleaning supplies in bulk to minimize packaging and save money. For example, concentrated cleaning solutions can be diluted on site and dispensed in reusable pump-spray bottles.
Ask your vendors and suppliers to provide supplies that are not overpackaged. Ask them to take back excess packaging for reuse.
Change lighting from incandescent to fluorescent. Fluorescent bulbs last much longer, meaning that you have fewer bulbs to dispose of and spend less time changing them. The initial outlay will quickly be paid for by reduced energy costs.
Practice grasscycling, that is, the natural recycling of grass by leaving clippings on the lawn to decompose. They quickly release valuable nutrients back into the soil. Have groundskeepers mulch or compost landscape wastes.
Le Chateau Montbello in Quebec, Canada has constructed a composting site, which will be used to fertilize and mulch its herb garden.

The Ritz-Carlton in Pasadena makes aprons and napkins from stained, worn linens. By also determining just the right amount of chemicals to use in laundering, the hotel saved $45,000 in one year!

The Seattle Sheraton Hotel and Towers donated 2000 telephones from guest rooms to a local housing organization, which made them available to low-income tenants.

Hotels in Florida have saved up to 50 percent in waste disposal costs by implementing aggressive waste reduction efforts. These savings come from reduced garbage hauling costs and the sale of recyclable materials.

Hotels and motels generate large amounts of highly recyclable materials, such as office paper, newspaper, corrugated cardboard, plastics, metals, and glass. Work with your waste hauler or recycler to arrange the details of your recycling program.

Consider recycling materials, such as glass, cans, cardboard, plastic, and cooking grease from the restaurant.
Work with suppliers to minimize the use of materials that are difficult to recycle, such waxed cardboard.
Collect old telephone books, magazines, newspapers, beverage containers, etc., from guest rooms. Put out recycling containers for guests to use or have cleaning staff collect them.
Recycle office materials. Examples are computer and bond paper, beverage containers, copier and printer cartridges.
Recycle motor oils, antifreeze, paint, etc., used by groundskeeping and maintenance staff.
Buy Recycled Products
The collection of recyclable materials is only the first step of the process we call recycling. Interesting new products are being manufactured from your recyclables and turning up in the marketplace. When you buy goods with recycled content, your purchases help to create a demand for materials collected in recycling programs. Remember to ask about a product's "postconsumer content." This means the product was made from materials that were used and recycled by consumers, rather than from manufacturing wastes.

Review your existing purchasing policies to assure they do not exclude buying goods with recycled content. Remove discriminatory standards that prevent the purchase of recycled products. State in bid packets that your organization expects vendors to supply products with recycled content.

Waste Reduction at Meetings, Conferences, and Expos
Conferences and trade shows are often overlooked as a major source of waste generated at hotels. The average trade show attendee takes home up to ten pounds of paper, and the typical expo generates the equivalent of 170 trees in waste paper! Hotels and meeting planners can reduce waste by planning low-waste meetings. Work with the corporations and associations holding the meetings, and urge them to try some of these ideas:

Announce to participating corporations, associations, and attendees, through mailings, that waste prevention and recycling will be taking place.
Urge attendees to reduce waste in their guest rooms as well. For instance, a guest may choose not to have linens and towels replaced every day.
If plastic badge holders are used, place collection bins at the meeting to collect them for reuse at another conference.
Don't offer wasteful gifts and premiums that attendees are likely to just throw away after the conference. Give something useful, such as commuter mugs with the corporation logo.
Ask trade show and expo vendors to limit the amount of material they bring to the show floor to that which they plan to distribute. (Some hotels are asking vendors to remove the materials, rather than picking up the tab for disposal or recycling.)
Use recycled paper products and plan for recycling by placing recycling containers at all meeting sites.
Print promotional materials on both sides of the paper, and minimize the use of glossy paper.
For More Help:
The "Green" Hotels Association is an industry member organization that encourages, promotes and supports the "greening" of the lodging industry. Their purpose is to bring together hotels interested in environmental issues.
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, It's Good Business, A Guide for California Businesses, 1994, CalRecycle.
Food For Thought, Restaurant Guide to Waste Reduction and Recycling, Revised 1998, CalRecycle.
For the name of your local recycling coordinator call the CalRecycle hotline at (800) 553-2962.
CalRecycle Buy Recycled Program, (916) 341-6481
When it comes to taking care of the environment, the hotel industry has long considered themselves to stand apart from other types of businesses. Because of the diversity of functions and staff positions, the endless 24-hour operations schedule, and the immediacy of good service, hotels tend to have a hard time separating recyclable waste from their trash. In recent years hotel owners and management have become more focused on waste management prgrams.

Recycling success oftentimes means providing the right incentives for managers and staff as well as taking advantage of ideas and resources that are otherwise ignored or underutilized. In addition there is usually a vast amount of community support and partnerships that can help greatly with achieving waste reduction and recycling goals.

The hotel industry is seeing the benefits to the bottom line through initial recycling programs. Hotels that have used the enthusiasm of their staffs have seen significant rewards, from a hotel in San Diego, California which cut its costs by over 50% in only two months, to a 300-room hotel in Miami which diverts 150 tons of waste a month, reducing costs by 60%. Hotels are making recycling efforts successful, and they are making money at it.

For anyone in the hotel industry looking to make a difference commercially, read on.

Recycling Tips

By creating a successful hotel recycling project the rewards will outweigh the initial start up work. What can a hotel expect to benefit? Resulting cost savings, good company PR, and employee incentives are all worth the effort.

If the benefits are outstanding then why is that a majority of hotels still have not joined the recycling movement? The easiest answer may be the difficulty in coordinating a program that spans across so many layers. Hotels employ a great number of people in different areas of operations that handle waste disposal. Here are tips to soothe the craftiest recycling naysayers.

Keep employees informed about the best recycling procedures by issuing memos and periodically reviewing procedures.
Monitor procedures on a regular basis to make sure that proper routines have become habit and continue to educate as is necessary.
Carefully track the volume and types of recyclables that are being processed at your facility.  Not only does this serve as a check and balance for the compensation you are to receive but it will also prompt you to sudden changes in data.
 With each new hire provide a recycling information packet that serves as a guide and orientation for your waste processing routines.  
Once policies have been implemented, continue to refine the processes and routines by encouraging feedback from your employees, especially those who are most involved in the waste processing operations.
Always encourage feedback from employees for suggestions or observations as a means of continuing to improve waste management and recycling programs. Periodically designate a few trusted employees to be the eyes and ears for management in pinpointing areas where participation or ciooperations is not taking place by departments or certain staff members.  Then speak with those who are not participating or cooperating to determine if they understand the importance of the programs and the desired procedures.

Waste Reduction Tips

A hotel's waste stream is as varied as it is large. In addition to trash that is typically hauled to the landfill such as food waste and mixed trash,there is also quite a bit of recyclables such as paper, cardboard and PET.  Just like in most other industries the hotel industry also has a typical waste profile that is failry common.  There is a lot of food waste similar to residential communities.

Although the hotel industry has its own typical waste profile there are also many reasons why it can vary from chain to chain or even hotel to hotel within the same corporate structure. The reasons for differences in waste profiles are too vast to mention but basically it all centers around how the hotels get their business, manage their business and grow their business. A hotel on the beach or in a resort area has a different set of circumstances than a Hotel in the country.  Hotels without restaurants would obviously have a much different waste profile than those with restaurants.  The variables for deviation of waste profiles are unlimited however the typical waste profile will generally be the same among hotels in the same markets and similar management styles.

Tips for a hotel to get started in creating a waste reduction program:

Hotel management should perform an easy waste review. Walk through your hotel or motel noting what type of waste is discarded in each area. This will help you determine which types of containers are needed. Typical waste management programs are likely to involve some of the following:
Administrative : High Quality Paper, Mixed Paper, Cardboard, bottles, cans and printer toner cartridges.
Food service areas :  Cans, plastic containers, glass, cardboard, cans and other metals.
Public areas : Magazines, newspaper, bottles and cans.
Based on the results of the waste assessment, set up appropriate recycling programs in all areas.
In addition, make sure that all receptacles and bins are well-marked for guests and staff to use. For public areas, it is best to choose receptacles and bins that have specialized openings, such as a hole for bottles and cans or a slot for newspapers. The placement of receptacles and bins should also be in locations that are convenient for recycling (and overall waste processing) which is usually on each floor near exits and elevators.  
Emphasize areas where it is critical to seperate certain types of waste from each other such as the seperation of yard waste and food waste from  other waste.  Food waste can be composted. 
Obtain pointers from the hauler and recycler..
So can the hotel industry overcome obstacles to recycling and waste management? The answer is yes and it lies in the steps to success outlined in this article. Just remember these keys:

Employee education;
Management commitment to the recycling program;
Hands-on monitoring of programs set in place;
User-friendly systems such as using clearly labeled containers and visually unique bins for collecting recyclables (e.g., specially colored bins); and
Make sorting recyclables part of every hotel employee's job description.
Hotels which utilize their solid waste programs and think pro actively for solutions with clear goals will make the most of recycling opportunities and reap environmental benefits for everyone involved

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